Saturday, January 21, 2017

How many refugees' families come to Norway?

This article was first published in Norwegian, in Statistics Norway’s journal Samfunnsspeilet: Dzamarija, Minja Tea og Toril Sandnes (2016): Familieinnvandring til flyktninger 1990–2015. Hvor mange får familien til Norge? Samfunnsspeilet 4/2016. Statistisk sentralbyrå.
In the period 1990–2015, 141 300 refugees found their way to Norway and were granted a residence permit. A total of 45 100 family members of 23 500 of these refugees have subsequently been accepted into Norway. This means that the majority of refugees do not have any family here. Country background has a large bearing on family immigration rates.

According to the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI), more than 31 000 people applied for asylum in Norway in 2015, mostly from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq (see UDI’s overview in this issue of Samfunnsspeilet). Questions have been raised about the need to restrict the right to family immigration for refugees. In the wake of the refugee crisis, it has been argued that the record number of asylum seekers in Norway in 2015 will trigger a marked increase in family immigration.
It is too soon to comment on family immigration among refugees who arrived in 2015, but the family immigration patterns of earlier refugees can give us an idea of the scope of the future family immigration. Statistics Norway has figures on reason for immigration from 1990 to 2015. During this period, 738 000 people immigrated to Norway from countries outside the Nordic region, and 141 300 of these were refugees.
One in every five immigrants in Norway was a refugee, which corresponds to 2.7 per cent of the population. Norway has refugees from 169 different countries, with most from Somalia, Iraq and Eritrea. Family immigrants of refugees make up just under one- fifth of all family immigrants, i.e. 45 100 of a total of 267 000 family immigrants (see the textbox for an explanation of terms).

0.32 family members per refugee

Family immigration has always played a key role in the growth of immigrant groups. The large influx of refugees has raised important questions in relation to immigration and integration policy. How many of those who have been granted residence in Norway will remain in the country? What is the scope of family-related immigration likely to be in the next few years?
This article examines immigrants who came to Norway in the period 1990–2015 as the family member of a refugee (reference person, see the box) who arrived during the same period. An average of 0.32 family members per refugee arrived during the period. This rate does not, however, take into account two important dimensions of family immigration, which we will examine later in this article:
  • The time aspect, i.e. how long it takes for a refugee to get a family member to Norway – which can vary considerably.
  • Multi-stage family immigration.
Seventeen per cent (23 500) of refugees have been able to get family members to Norway (see Figure 1). Eighty-three per cent have never acted as a reference person. Sixty per cent of the refugees who are registered as a reference person are only associated with one family member, while 15 per cent have two family members in Norway. In total, 1 900 refugees (8 per cent) have managed to get five or more family members into Norway. Among these are a few cases that have triggered an unusually high number of family immigrants; 54 reference persons, mostly from Somalia and Iraq, are registered with ten or more family members.

Meeting the requirements for family immigration can take time

As time passes, the number of family immigrants accepted into Norway will increase as the reference person, in this case a refugee, fulfils the various requirements for family immigration, such as four years of education or work in Norway (Lovdata). 
Meeting these requirements may take several years, so we have also examined family immigrants during the period 1990–2015 for refugees who arrived during the period 1990–2010. The average for this sub-group is 0.37 family members per refugee. Refugees who arrived in Norway after 2010 constitute a relatively large share of the total number of refugees, but few have managed to get family members into Norway.
We have calculated the number of family immigrants of refugees for each year from 1990 to 2015. Men and women who immigrated as refugees in the period 2002–2003 had the most family immigrants per reference person. The figures peaked in 2002, with 0.73 family immigrants per refugee. Refugees who arrived in Norway after 2012 have not been here long enough to secure as many family immigrants as can perhaps be expected

Somalis and Iraqis have highest family immigration levels

The share of family immigrants of refugees varies by country background. Somalis make up the largest refugee group in Norway, and together with Iraqis, have the most family members in Norway through family immigration

A total of almost 17 900 refugees from Somalia arrived in Norway in the years 1990 to 2015. This group now has 12 300 family members in the country as a result of family immigration in the same period. The numbers have varied, and reached a peak around the turn of the millennium.
The entire 2002 cohort as a whole currently has the most family immigrants, with 1.30 per refugee. The family immigration rate for Somalia for the period 1990–2015 is 0.68 family members per refugee, which is roughly double the rate for all refugees as a whole in the same 15-year period (0.32).
The influx of refugees from Somalia has been high in several of the years since the turn of the millennium. It is therefore reasonable to assume that future family immigration among these refugees will be even higher than pre-2015 levels. However, there has also been a substantial decline in immigration from Somalia in the past two to three years. In 2013, the number of newly arrived refugees was 1 400, compared to just 200 in 2015 (Dzamarija and Sandnes 2016).
Iraqis make up the second largest refugee group in Norway. In the period 1990–2015, 14 500 refugees arrived from Iraq. A total of 8 500 family immigrants of this group have subsequently come to Norway, which corresponds to 0.58 family members per refugee. The largest cohorts from around the turn of the millennium have led to the bulk of family immigration. The 1999 cohort tops the list with 1.29 family members per refugee. In absolute numbers, the 2000 cohort stands out with high immigration figures: 3 500 refugees from Iraq have received 3 000 family immigrants, which corresponds to 0.86 family members per refugee.
Since 2010, the number of refugees and family immigrants from Iraq has been modest. It is therefore reasonable to assume that future family immigration for these groups will be correspondingly low.
Many of the asylum seekers who came to Norway in autumn 2015 were from Iraq. If they are all granted residence in Norway, the number of Iraqi family immigrants is likely to increase.
For Bosnians and Kosovan Albanians, the number of years in Norway has not had such a large bearing on family immigration. These refugee groups mostly came to Norway as families, and there are very few from these countries who can now be granted residence as a refugee in Norway.

Many Syrians awaiting residence to be granted

Since the large influx in 2015, Syrian citizens are by far the largest group in Norwegian asylum reception centres in 2016. Statistics Norway’s statistics do not include asylum seekers awaiting a decision, but the number of settled Syrian immigrants almost doubled in 2015.
It is too soon to know the scope of family immigration for Syrians who came to Norway as asylum seekers in 2015, or who were settled as refugees in this year, but we know that the 2013 cohort, made up of just under 1 000 people, has resulted in 0.37 family immigrants per refugee. The 2015 cohort is the largest, with 3 500 registered settled refugees, but they understandably have very few family immigrants so far.

Female family immigrants in the majority

Of the family immigrants who have arrived since 1990, 77 per cent have come through family reunification, while the remainder have come to establish a new family through marriage (see box for explanation of terms). A total of 61 per cent of all family immigrants in the period 1990–2015 were women.

Two countries stand out in several stages of family immigration

Further examination of the figures can show whether those who came to Norway as a family member of a refugee subsequently became a reference person for one or more family immigrants. Figures for the period from 1990 to 2015 show that 2 600 (6 per cent) of the 45 100 family immigrants have become a reference person, and have brought 3 450 new family members to the country

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Four in Ten Norwegian Enterprises Have Only Male Employees

Forty-five per cent of all enterprises have both male and female employees. Thirty-eight per cent of enterprises have only male employees and 17 per cent of enterprises have only female employees

In 63 per cent of all enterprises in construction, and transport and storage, all employees are male. Sixty per cent of all enterprises in other service activities and 44 per cent of all enterprises in health and social work activities have exclusively female employees, according to Statistics Norway’s altest report.
Most of the enterprises have few employees; 79 per cent had fewer than ten persons employed.
Almost half of all enterprises as of the date the survey was done had no employees with a higher education level than upper secondary school. In roughly 70 per cent of all enterprises in other service activities, transport and storage, as well as construction, the highest education level of all employees was either compulsory or upper secondary education. 
In 14 per cent of all enterprises, all employees were graduates. Thirty-nine per cent of all enterprises in professional, scientific and technical activities and 33 per cent of all enterprises in information and communication had only graduate employees.

Parliament Report Favors Closing of Duty Free Shops in Norway

Public health will be improved if the duty free trade is closed, according to a new parliament report

That is the conclusion of the 13-page tax-assessment report which Parliament requested last year, according to Vårt Land.
The report lists pros and cons of duty-free sales at airports and ferries.
According to the report, the duty-free stores cause buying and consuming more alcohol. Increased alcohol consumption leads to more deaths, more violent crime and increased absenteeism.
The disadvantages of closing down duty-frees include that Norwegians will get worse flight offers and higher ticket prices. And if the Vinmonopolet acquires duty-free sales, another state company, Avinor will lose billion of kroner revenue.
The government is not interested in changing the tax-free scheme and has no plan to close down duty-free stores for now. 

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Norway Mobilizes against Controversial Dakota Access Pipeline in the USA

Protests are held in Oslo and Bergen against the oil pipeline "Black Snake" in the United States. Also 470 organizations contacted Norwegian bank DNB to stop funding the project.

The protest in Oslo was led by Norway’s indigenous group, Sami’s church council.  Member of the Sami Church Council, Mikkel Eskil Mikkelsen said  that Dakota Access Pipeline is built through indigenous areas without consultation or consent, so they can not accept it as other similar oil pipelines has caused polluted water, writes NRK.

Demonstrations are organized by hundreds of organizations around the world, including the environmental organization Greenpeace.
Green Peace Norway writes that INSANITY must end. 
- There are serious assaults against the people who are protesting in the USA. There are shooting by rubber bullets, tear gas, spraying with water cannons in freezing temperatures and arbitrary detention of demonstrators, says climate and energy adviser Martin Norman to NRK.
Norman says that they will show solidarity for those who are severely abused in Dakota, who try to protect their drinking water.
Pressure on DNB to Stop Funding
Greenpeace Norway met this week with Norwegian state-owned bank DNB to demand freezing Norwegian bank investments in controversial oil pipeline in the United States.
At the meeting, Greenpeace handed a letter to DNB and the other lenders of the construction of the oil pipeline Dakota Access Pipeline in the United States.
More than 400 organizations from 47 countries have signed the letter. The requirement for DNB is as followed:
  • Instantly freeze all further loan disbursements for the project.
  • Demand from developers that all the construction of the oil pipeline and infrastructure is halted until the problem with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe resolved.
  • In case you can not reach agreement with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, DNB must withdraw completely from the loan agreement.
  • Make a public statement in response to how they will deal with the challenges mentioned above.
DNB has already drawn investments from companies involved in the project. 
The bank is still heavily involved in lending through its other holdings.
DNB has lent 4.7 billion NOK to the project, which makes about 15 percent of the debt financing the construction of pipeline.
Kaj Martin Georgsen, director of corporate social responsibility at DNB said that the company takes the demand seriously and assess both social, policy and procedures in this project.
- We will also assess the project according to the international standards, and come with recommendations to the project. This will form the basis for DNB’s assessment and further work on the issue, says Georgsen to NRK.

6 Easy Ways To Pay A Lower Rate For Car Insurance

The mystery of what goes into a car insurance rate. Why do different people get better deals on their automobile insurance? And why are some people paying extraordinary amounts for car insurance? There is a complicated formula for how rates are created – but after some research we have found ways to understand how your price is calculated. If you understand what creates a rate, you can control what you pay. All automobile car insurance prices and rates are calculated based off risk.  Before you try and get your next car insurance price quote comparison, keep these things in mind.
The lower the risk and the safer you are, the less you pay and the cheaper your quote will be. So lower your risk, and know that knowledge is power!  

Read the 6 secrets on how you can save yourself money on your insurance rate on the next page.  

Norwegian Air Gets Approval for Flights to U.S., Despite Opposition

US Department of Transportation grants Norwegian Air license to conduct "transportation of persons, property and mail from any place within any Member State of the European Union to any place in the USA."

The news makes Norwegian CEO Bjorn Kjos very happy.

- We are very pleased that the American authorities have finally given our EU-company permission to fly to the US, says CEO Bjorn Kjos said in a statement.
The permit has been effective from 2 December. 
Norwegian has waited three years for this license, as trade unions, and politicians and airlines have tried to stop the process, according to news agency AP.
They have accused Norwegian to have skirted labor and safety laws with its Irish subsidiary, according to USA Today.
U.S. critics, including Delta and United airlines, and the Air Line Pilots Association, argued that the Norwegian company has been headquartered in Ireland for hiring Asian crews for below-market wages.
On the other hand, the Norwegian company is happy about the possible positive impact. This approval finally makes it possible for us to plan the Cork to the U.S. routes we, and many others, have been looking forward to, writes a press release.
- Above all, it is a victory for millions of passengers who will benefit from more choice and lower fares. We now look forward to working on our plans for Norwegian’s continued expansion in the US, delivering the flights, jobs and economic boost we always promised we would, says the Norwegian spokesperson. 

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Spar penger på å bo på den svenske vare

vernatting dobler nemlig handlemulighetene, skriver Din side.
Ifølge Tollvesenet kan du ta med deg varer for 3000 kroner toll - og avgiftsfritt hvis du drar på dagstur. Er du utenlands i mer enn 24 timer er denne grensen 6000 kroner.

Må betale moms

I fjor handlet vi for 14 milliarder kroner på dagsturer til utlandet. Det er en økning på 600 millioner kroner, eller fire prosent, fra året før, viser tall fra Statistisk sentralbyrå.
Også den svenske kronekursen er attraktiv for oss nordmenn. Nå er den svenske kronekursen 92 kroner.

Hvis du har planer om å reise til Sverige i mer enn 24 timer kan du altså handle for 6000 uten å betale toll og avgifter. Denne verdigrensen er den totale summen på varene du har handlet, inkludert kvotevarene (alkohol og tobakk).
Hvis du ikke skal være så lenge i utlandet, er grensen 3000 kroner. Også her gjelder verdigrensen på det du har handlet, inkludert kvotevarene.
Handler du for mer, må du nemlig gå på rødt når du kommer tilbake til Norge og betale 25 prosent moms på de fleste varene.

For å forklare hva dette innebærer bruker Tollvesenet en sofa til 5000 kroner og en barnevogn til 3000 som eksempel. 

– Har du vært ute av Norge i mer enn 24 timer, lønner det seg å la sofaen være en del av verdigrensa, mens du betaler avgifter for barnevogna, skriver de.
Det er viktig å merke seg at dersom du kjøper en sofa til 10.000 må du betale toll og avgifter på hele verdien.

– Sov og spar penger

Nå har altså nettstedet Din side regnet ut at det lønner seg å overnatte over grensa for å å spare både penger og bensinutgifter.

– En kjapp sjekk på booking.com viser at du eksempelvis får en natt for to personer på camping eller hotell i nærheten av Nordby Shopping center ved Svinesund fra 500 til 900 kroner. Og med store prisforskjeller kan du fort tjene inn dette eller mer på en storhandel.